The web should be a platform that helps people and provides a net positive social benefit. As we continue to evolve the web platform, we must consider the consequences of our work. This document sets out questions for specification authors, reviewers, and implementors of new web platform technologies to answer as part of a critical assessment of the impact of their work.
This document is an early draft and does not reflect the consensus of the TAG.
## Introduction {#intro} The web platform has a broad global reach, and is used for a huge variety of different purposes. The architecture of the web platform increases in complexity with each new feature added, and it is difficult to predict how a change in one place may impact other feature designers or end users in another. New features, and additions or changes to existing features, should bring benefits to end users of the web, and avoid doing harms. The questions in this document are to help specification authors as they think through the impacts implementations of their features may have, both in the immediate scope of their work, as well as more widely. The questions encourage the reader to think about perspectives other than their own, as well as to think about worst case scenarios. Many things are not used in the way their creators intended them, which can be very positive or very harmful. Whilst specification authors can't be held responsible for every possible future implementation, in contexts which may not even exist today, it is important to think critically about technologies which have the potential to directly and indirectly affect large numbers of people. This is particularly important as the web's reach means it can have an amplifying effect on social phenomena. Technology which provides a threat or a benefit to a small number may result in a wider society where the same threat or benefit is commonplace, when the technology is available as part of the web platform. These questions are an accompaniment to the [[EWP|Ethical Web Principles]], intended to help specification authors and reviewers to think more concretely about the ethical implications of particular specification features. ## Questions to consider {#questions} ### What kinds of activities do you anticipate your specification becoming a critical part of? {#critical-part} Think about the use cases of stakeholders currently engaged in work on the specification, as well as potential implementors in the future. Is this something that may be used by citizens as part of their interactions with governments? Will it be used in workplaces or schools? Is it more applicable to a niche community? Is it something that a person might run on a device they carry with them (like a mobile phone or e-reader) or something that runs on a device in the home (like an internet-enabled fridge)? In this context, if access to the features in your specification become unavailable, what problems might this cause to end users? What mitigations do you have in place? ### What kinds of activities could your specification become a part of that you are not designing for? {#unexpected-use} Are there other use cases that can be met by your feature(s) that were not part of your original plans? People who use, build and author on the web platform can be very creative and use features in unexpected ways. Think beyond the problems you set out to solve with your specification. How might they be useful in other problem spaces or ecosystems? Are there any other groups you could reach out to to discuss this potential further? ### What risks do you see in features of your specification being misused, or used differently from how you intended? {#misuse} Think about worst case scenarios. Bad actors may try to trick people, try to inject malware, steal information, track people's activities without their knowledge or consent, leak information across origin boundaries, game people's consent, surveil people. If one or more of the parties involved in an implementation of your feature(s) are bad actors, who can they exploit and how? Explain any mitigations you have in place in your specification, and in the wider ecosystem. Next think about possible use cases that may be completely different from the problems you set out to solve when designing your feature(s). How does the threat model change? What unexpected consequences could arise? ### Can users of the Web Platform choose not to use features of your specification? {#opt-out} What does your specification do from an end-user perspective? What happens if the end-user doesn't want that? How easy is it for someone to opt out of these features? What might they lose? Are end-users able to give meaningful consent to using these features? In what ways can people be coerced into using these features, for example by a malicious party; through the use of manipulative design features; through strong social or cultural expectations, etc? ### What groups of people are excluded from using features of your specification? {#excluded} What steps have you taken as part of the specification to ensure the features are available to as many people as possible? What additional steps have you taken / are being taken / will need to be taken in the wider ecosystem to improve access and inclusivity of these features? If certain groups are deliberately excluded from using these features, explain why. ### What effect may features of your specification have on minority groups? {#minority-groups} Minority (underrepresented) or historically disadvantaged groups may be different depending on culture, location, or other context. Think about parts of society who may have trouble getting their voice heard, or their needs taken seriously; who have faced prejudice and discrimination in the past, or still do so today. In what ways might technology built around the feature(s) of your specification impact groups with these characteristics? Are there any specific groups who would be particularly impacted? Are there divides in society which may be widened (or closed)? Think also about the broader ecosystem in which your feature(s) will be deployed. What is in place to mitigate negative effects? ### What are the power dynamics at play in implementations of your specification? {#power-dynamics} As a result of these features, explain which parties are granted additional power, and which have power removed, and to what extent. In a worst case scenario, what power imbalances are exacerbated as a result of implementations of your specification? Parties to consider include the User Agent, device and software vendors, site authors, users of the Web Platform, intermediaries. Where is power concentrated in the ecosystem of which your specification is a part, and do features of your specification increase or reduce that concentration of power? What structural inequalities may be reinforced by the ecosystem your specification is part of, and which may be reduced? ### What points of centralization does your feature bring to the web platform? {#centralization} Do features of your specification introduce any ways of restricting or controlling flows of information? Does it make use of any existing gatekeepers on the web, and does it bring any new ones? If so, what are the benefits and disadvantages? ### To what extent do the features in your specification impact the natural environment? {#environment} Think broadly about how computing technologies may result in carbon emissions or electronic waste, and the effect that implementations of your features may have. Measuring the carbon footprint of a particular technology can be challenging; what are the main things you would need to highlight if an expert was going to attempt to do so? What steps have you taken to increase efficiency, or decrease processing requirements of the devices which will run implementations of your specification? If applicable, how are you reducing data storage needs on clientside devices? Does your specification add features that will encourage or necessitate web users to update their devices (either software or hardware) to use them? Consider also the wider ecosystem which your specification is intended to be part of. Is there anything you can do to mandate or encourage environmentally sustainable practices within this ecosystem, from the perspective of your specification? Do features of your specification enable or facilitate interactions which would have a positive impact on the environment compared with how similar things are achieved without these features? ### What is the expected lifetime of your specification feature(s)? {#lifetime} Once something is added to the web platform it is very difficult to remove it. Are the features in your specification expected to remain stable and relevant for months, years, or decades? What circumstances would result in a need to deprecate these features? Do you have a strategy for deprecation, replacement or improvement? Remember that you may not have control over deprecating or removing a feature. ### Have you completed the [Security & Privacy Self-review Questionnaire]( {#security-and-privacy}